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Planck intermediate results XXXV. Probing the role of the magnetic field in the formation of structure in molecular clouds

Planck Collaboration P. A. R. Ade N. Aghanim 1 M. I. R. Alves 1 M. Arnaud D. Arzoumanian 1 M. Ashdown J. Aumont 1 C. Baccigalupi 2 A. J. Banday R. B. Barreiro E. Battaner K. Benabed A. Benoît 3 A. Benoit-Lévy 4 J.-P. Bernard 5 M. Bersanelli P. Bielewicz J. J. Bock L. Bonavera J. R. Bond J. Borrill 6 F. R. Bouchet 7 F. Boulanger A. Bracco 8 C. Burigana E. Calabrese J.-F. Cardoso 9, 10 A. Catalano 11 H. C. Chiang P. R. Christensen L. P. L. Colombo C. Combet 11 F. Couchot 12 B.P. Crill A. Curto F. Cuttaia L. Danese R. D. Davies R. J. Davis P. de Bernardis A. de Rosa G. de Zotti J. Delabrouille 10 C. Dickinson J. M. Diego H. Dole 13 S. Donzelli O. Doré M. Douspis 1 A. Ducout 4 X. Dupac G. Efstathiou F. Elsner 4 T. A. Enßlin H. K. Eriksen D. Falceta-Gonçalves E. Falgarone 14 K. Ferrière 15 F. Finelli O. Forni 1 M. Frailis A. Fraisse E. Franceschi A. Frejsel S. Galeotta S. Galli K. Ganga 10 T. Ghosh M. Giard 16 E. Gjerløw J. González-Nuevo K.M. Górski A. Gregorio A. Gruppuso J. E. Gudmundsson V. Guillet 17 D. L. Harrison G. Helou 18 P. Hennebelle 19 S. Henrot-Versille 12 C. Hernández-Monteagudo D. Herranz S. R. Hildebrandt E. Hivon W. A. Holmes A. Hornstrup K. M. Huffenberger G. Hurier A. H. Jaffe T. R. Jaffe W. C. Jones M. Juvela E. Keihänen R. Keskitalo T. S. Kisner J. Knoche M. Kunz 1 H. Kurki-Suonio Guilaine Lagache 20 J.-M. Lamarre 21 A. Lasenby 22 M. Lattanzi 23 C. R. Lawrence R. Leonardi F. Levrier 21 M. Liguori P. B. Lilje M. Linden-Vørnle M. López-Caniego P. M. Lubin J. F. Macías-Pérez 11 D. Maino N. Mandolesi A. Mangilli 12 M. Maris P. G. Martin 24 E. Martínez-González S. Masi S. Matarrese A. Melchiorri L. Mendes A. Mennella M. Migliaccio M.-A. Miville-Deschênes 1 A. Moneti L. Montier 16 G. Morgante D. Mortlock D. Munshi J. A. Murphy P. Naselsky F. Nati 25 C. B. Netterfield F. Noviello D. Novikov I. Novikov N. Oppermann C. A. Oxborrow L. Pagano F. Pajot 16 R. Paladini 5 D. Paoletti F. Pasian L. Perotto 11 V. Pettorino 26 F. Piacentini 27 M. Piat 10 E. Pierpaoli 28 D. Pietrobon 27 S. Plaszczynski 12 E. Pointecouteau 29 G. Polenta N. Ponthieu G. W. Pratt 29 S. Prunet J.-L. Puget 1 J. P. Rachen M. Reinecke M. Remazeilles 10 C. Renault 11 A. Renzi I. Ristorcelli 5 G. Rocha M. Rossetti 30 G. Roudier 10 J. A. Rubiño-Martín B. Rusholme M. Sandri D. Santos 11 M. Savelainen G. Savini D. Scott J. D. Soler 1 V. Stolyarov R. Sudiwala D. Sutton A.-S. Suur-Uski J.-F. Sygnet J. A. Tauber L. Terenzi L. Toffolatti M. Tomasi M. Tristram 12 M. Tucci G. Umana L. Valenziano 31 J. Valiviita B. van Tent 32 P. Vielva Francesca Villa L. A. Wade B. D. Wandelt I. K. Wehus N. Ysard 1 D. Yvon 33 A. Zonca
24 LM2C - Laboratoire de Modélisation Multi-échelles des Combustibles
SESC - Service d'Etudes de Simulation du Comportement du combustibles : DEN/DEC/SESC
Abstract : Within ten nearby (d < 450 pc) Gould belt molecular clouds we evaluate statistically the relative orientation between the magnetic field projected on the plane of sky, inferred from the polarized thermal emission of Galactic dust observed by Planck at 353 GHz, and the gas column density structures, quantified by the gradient of the column density, NH. The selected regions, covering several degrees in size, are analysed at an effective angular resolution of 10' FWHM, thus sampling physical scales from 0.4 to 40 pc in the nearest cloud. The column densities in the selected regions range from NH≈ 1021 to1023 cm-2, and hence they correspond to the bulk of the molecular clouds. The relative orientation is evaluated pixel by pixel and analysed in bins of column density using the novel statistical tool called "histogram of relative orientations". Throughout this study, we assume that the polarized emission observed by Planck at 353 GHz is representative of the projected morphology of the magnetic field in each region, I.e., we assume a constant dust grain alignment efficiency, independent of the local environment. Within most clouds we find that the relative orientation changes progressively with increasing NH, from mostly parallel or having no preferred orientation to mostly perpendicular. In simulations of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in molecular clouds this trend in relative orientation is a signature of Alfvénic or sub-Alfvénic turbulence, implying that the magnetic field is significant for the gas dynamics at the scales probed by Planck. We compare the deduced magnetic field strength with estimates we obtain from other methods and discuss the implications of the Planck observations for the general picture of molecular cloud formation and evolution.
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Planck Collaboration, P. A. R. Ade, N. Aghanim, M. I. R. Alves, M. Arnaud, et al.. Planck intermediate results XXXV. Probing the role of the magnetic field in the formation of structure in molecular clouds. Astronomy and Astrophysics - A&A, EDP Sciences, 2016, 586, pp.A138. ⟨10.1051/0004-6361/201525896⟩. ⟨hal-02137621⟩

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