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Are Superficially Dissimilar Analogs better retrieved than Superficially Similar Disanalogs?

Abstract : In the present study, we tested the assumption that structural similarity overcomes surface similarity in the retrieval of past events, by observing whether structural similarity alone is a better cue than surface similarity alone. To do so, in three story-recall experiments, we provided the participants with multiple source stories and then with a target cue story. This target cue only shared surface similarity with one source story, and structural similarity with another source story. In Experiment 1A, a Superficially Similar Disanalog source story (SSD) and a Superficially Dissimilar Analog source story (SDA) were presented among Superficially Dissimilar Disanalog source stories (SDDs). A soundness rating task was used in Experiment 1B to control the absence of structural similarity among the SSDs presented in Experiment 1A. In Experiment 2, the number of SSDs was increased in the aim to reproduce more ecological conditions. In Experiment 3, a filler task was introduced and supplementary source stories were presented in order to make the study more similar to previous story-recall paradigms. The results of the three story-recall experiments support the dominance of structural over surface similarities in analogical retrieval. The role of a structurally-based access regarding the retrieval of Superficially Similar Analogs (SSAs) and SDAs is discussed, as well as the factors underlying the rare occurrence of SDAs retrievals in previous experiments.
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Submitted on : Thursday, October 22, 2020 - 12:33:09 PM
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Lucas Raynal, Evelyne Clément, Emmanuel Sander. Are Superficially Dissimilar Analogs better retrieved than Superficially Similar Disanalogs?. Acta Psychologica, Elsevier, 2020, ⟨10.1016/j.actpsy.2019.102989⟩. ⟨hal-02975044⟩



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